HSA 535 HSA/535 HSA535 Midterm Exam Part 1

<span itemprop="name">HSA 535 HSA/535 HSA535 Midterm Exam Part 1</span>
  1. Reproductive health studies ____.
  2. HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, is currently a ____.
  3. Physical, biological, social, cultural, and behaviors that influence health are known as ____.
  4. A disease or condition that affects a greater than expected (normal) number of individuals within a population, community, or region at the same time is referred to as an ____.
  5. The biological cause of a problem or disease is known as ____.
  6. One of the important concepts from the Nuremberg Code is that of ____, which means that the subject understands the scope of the study and can make an informed decision to participate.
  7. Social epidemiology studies ____.
  8. Identifying diseases prior to the clinical stage means that prevention efforts can begin immediately. Because the disease is already present, this is an example of ____ prevention.
  9. While Austin Bradford Hill is well-known for his work in developing guidelines for establishing causality for studies of non-infectious diseases, his other contributions to the field of epidemiology and ____ are remarkable.
  10. Determining the cause of a disease is referred to as ____.
  11. The modern epidemiologic triangle includes groups of populations, causative factors, and ____.
  12. For chronic diseases, the time between exposure and symptoms is called the ____ period, which can range from a few months to many years.
  13. James Lind (1716-1794) observed the effect of time, place, weather, and diet on the spread of disease by ____.
  14. Risk factors or exposures that we think might affect the outcome are known as ____.
  15. Consider a food borne illness that is being investigated from a restaurant during a one week period.  Anyone who ate at that restaurant, and had vomiting and diarrhea during that week, could be considered a(n) ____ even if they had not gone to see their doctor.
  16. A person in the population or study group identified as having the particular disease, health disorder, or condition under investigation is known as a ____.
  17. The number of new cases of disease in a specified time (usually one year) divided by the population “at-risk” to develop the disease is known as ____.
  18. By definition, the disease or condition used to identify a case is determined by the ____.
  19. A table in epidemiology that arranges numbers to allow the comparison of exposure and outcome is called a ____ table.
  20. While many people are used to hearing proportions represented as a percentage, many population samples in epidemiology are often presented per ____.
  21. The representation of a numerator as a fraction of a denominator is known as a(n) ____.
  22. ____ is the transmission of a disease from person to person, and may be directly from one person to another, or indirectly from one person through an intermediate item to another person.
  23. If a bacterium carries several resistance genes, it is called a ____.
  24. If a bacterium carries several resistance genes, it is called a ____.
  25. There is ____ in the overall crude death rate in the United States from the year 1900 until 1996.
  26. The probability of death due to infectious disease in sub-Saharan Africa is ____%, but only ____% in developed countries, such as the United States.
  27. One of the most important emerging problems with the control of infectious diseases has to do with ____.
  28. Infectious diseases are responsible for ____% of worldwide deaths in children under 15 years old and ____% of deaths in people aged 15-59 years old.
  29. A(n) ____ is an infected individual capable of transmitting disease during and after clinical disease.
  30. ____ is the transmission of a disease from mother to child during pregnancy or delivery.

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